By B.L. Theraja, R. S. Sedha
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Extra info for A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume IV - Electronic Devices and Circuits
Because of this charge separation, an electric potential difference V B is established across the junction even when the junction is externally isolated (Fig. 34). It is known as junction or barrier potential. It stops further flow of carriers across the junction unless supplied by energy from an external source. 7 V for Si. The value of barrier voltage is given by V B = V T loge N a Nd / ni2 where N a, N d, ni2 and V T have the meanings explained in Art. 29 and 34. 6 × 10−19 ∴ VB = 26 loge (N aN d / ni ) mV Barrier voltage depends on doping density, electronic charge and temperature.
The current in the semiconductor is then the sum of the electron and hole currents. 38. P-N Junction It is possible to manufacture a single piece of a semiconductor material half of which is doped by P-type impurity and the other half by N-type impurity as shown in Fig. 32. The plane dividing the two zones is called junction. Theoretically, junction plane is assumed to lie where the density of donors and acceptors is equal. The P-N junction is fundamental to the operation of diodes, transistors and other solid-statedevices.
It is a forcefree process based on non-uniform distribution of charge carriers in a semiconductor crystal. It leads to an electric current without the benefit of an applied field. This flow or diffusion of carriers is proportional to the carrier density gradient, the constant of proportionality being called diffusion 2 constant or diffusion coefficient D which has a unit of m /s. Current density due to hole diffusion is Jh = − eDh dp/dx. Similarly, current density due to electron diffusion is Je = eDe dn/dx.