By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)
This newest quantity during this sequence includes articles at the body structure of human and animal ailment vectors.
* Contributions from the top researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological variety in bugs * contains in-depth experiences with useful info for numerous entomology disciplines
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Extra resources for Advances in Insect Physiology
In this section, we will discuss some of the processes that occur in an intermediate stage, between sensory reception and behaviour. We will firstly define the three levels of information processing, determining how animals acquire and make use of information to locate resources. The first level of processing is ‘‘reception,’’ which refers to peripheral events in the sensory organs, occurring as a consequence of a change in the physical or chemical properties of the environment. In physiological terms, this phase determines the type of variables the sensory system of a given animal is potentially able to detect.
These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. Haematophagous insects use these mechanisms in combination when approaching a host. The traditional classification of orientation mechanisms (Fraenkel and Gunn, 1961; Jander, 1963; Dusenbery, 1992) may be considered out of date or too restrictive. However, it is not only very useful, but essential, for designing experiments, interpreting results and understanding how information is acquired and used to find resources. According to the classical definition (Fraenkel and Gunn, 1961; Dusenbery, 1992), stimuli may affect behaviour in two ways, affecting either kinetics or direction.
This model (Fig. 12) is based on the multimodal integration of proprioceptive and thermoreceptive inputs, the comparison of thermal stimuli and basic thermodynamics. The heat emanating from the source stimulates thermoreceptors. When the insect moves its antennae under proprioceptive control, the position of the thermoreceptors relative to the source changes, causing a change in the intensity of thermal stimulation. By integrating these changes with proprioceptive inputs to determine the position of the antennae, the insect could detect the edges of the source and thus estimate its apparent size.