By von Kármán, Theodore
Captivating, reader-friendly chronicle by way of a recognized pioneer in aerodynamic examine lines the improvement of dynamic flight from the time of Newton during the twentieth century. It recounts struggles of engineers and physicists with difficulties linked to raise, drag, balance, aeroelasticity, and the sound barrier. The e-book comprises seventy two figures.
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Extra info for Aerodynamics - Selected Topics in the Light of Their Historical Development
Fig. Normal force on a flat plate versus angle of attack a. Normal force per unit width of the plate is divided by pU2L to obtain a nondimensional coefficient. p is the density of fluid, U is the velocity of relative stream, and L is the length of the plate. Curves I, 2, and 3 represent Newton’s theory, Rayleigh’s theory, and the present-day (circulation) theory of lift, respectively. 0 c 3/ To summarize what has been said about the state of affairs around 1900,when mechanical flight was first realized: At that time there was a science, which can be called semiempirical aerodynamics, only loosely connected with the rational theory of the mechanics of fluids.
An airplane flying over a forest and emitting dust. S. ) The system of free vortices gives rise to a velocity field, called the field of induced velocities, in which each constituent vortex with horizontal axis sets up a circulatory motion of air. We are especially interested in the vertical component o€ the velocity in 49 AERODYNAMICS this field, which we call the downwash. According to general mechanical principles, every force acting on a body moving through the air must have its counterpart in the momentum imparted to the air.
21. Picture of the streamline flow around an airfoil started from rest. The camera is 'moving with the airfoil. (From L. F'randtl and 0. G. ) 4' AERODYNAMICS Fzg. 22. pictures of the streamline flow at a little later stage than Fig. 2 1 . Upper: Camera at rest relative to undisturbed fluid. L o w : Camera moving with the airfoil. (From L. Prandtl and 0. G . ) fine aluminum powder, which supposedly follows the streamlines of the fluid. We see that at the first moment, as shown in Fig. 21, the fluid has the tendency to “go around” the sharp edge.