By Benoit Dufort
Analog try out sign iteration utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams provides a brand new option to generate prime quality analog signs with low complexity. The conception of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a suite of empirical tables to aid opt for the perfect parameters of a bitstream. An optimization approach can be defined to assist decide upon a section series with the specified attributes. a wide number of indications might be generated utilizing this procedure. Silicon implementation matters are mentioned with a particular emphasis on region overhead and simplicity of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 diverse silicon implementations are offered in addition to experimental effects. it's proven that easy designs are able to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The process is additional prolonged to multi-bit sign iteration the place it really is proven tips on how to raise the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines normally present in earlier and present-day mixed-signal testers. No variations are required, purely the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 diversified calibration innovations to lessen the consequences of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including helping experimental facts.
the main target of this article is to explain an area-efficient procedure for analog sign new release utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded info circulate. The major features of the strategy are:
- excessive caliber signs (SFDR of a hundred and ten dB observed);
- huge number of indications generated;
- Bitstreams simply received with a quick optimization software;
- strong frequency answer, suitable with coherent sampling;
- easy and speedy undefined implementation;
- in general electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and probably a reconstruction clear out;
- reminiscence already to be had on-chip may be reused, lowering region overhead;
- Designs might be integrated into latest CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency new release.
Read or Download Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams PDF
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Additional info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
Figure 3-9: Approximating the infinite bit stream by periodically repeating a sample ,---------------------------------. JI x~ f\JV y~: U\IlIlJlflIUlfl 10 100 l... I - L _________________________________ Software Integrated Circuit (b): WOO: :(d). :. • II ...... •• . • •• ~ • 1Wl. 1 Input Signal The method begins by defining the attributes of the desired analog signal and to mathematically represent this signal by its samples x(n). 1 modulator to convert this signal into a single-bit stream that can then be used by the Ie memory to produce a corresponding analog signal.
For example, a II-bit quantizer is excited by a sinusoidal signal having an amplitude of unity and a frequency of 250 kHz. The sampling rate Fs is set to I MHz. The corresponding power spectral density (PSD) of the output is shown in Fig. 3-3. Here we see a large spike corresponding to the input tone at 250 kHz having a magnitude of -6 dB and its image at 750 kHz. All other frequencies are occupied by a small residual signal having a magnitude of approximately 90 dB spread fairly evenly across the frequency spectrum.
Histogram based testing using sinewave signals as stimulus were presented in . The particular code density from the sinewave is taken into account when comparing the output to the expected response. Recent progress in histogram based techniques and software is described in . 2 Correlation Tests Once the output of the CUT is digitized, either because the CUT is an ADC or a dedicated ADC is used to digitize the output, a very useful tool to extract information is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).