By Martha Himmelfarb
This can be a examine of the traditional Jewish and Christian apocalypses related to ascent into heaven, that have obtained little scholarly consciousness compared to apocalypses involved essentially with the top of the area. contemporary advancements just like the book of the Aramaic Enoch fragments from Qumran and curiosity in questions of style within the research of the apocalypses make this a very acceptable time to adopt this learn. Martha Himmelfarb areas the apocalypses when it comes to either their biblical antecedents and their context within the Greco-Roman international. Her research emphasizes the emergence of the knowledge of heaven as temple within the booklet of the Watchers, the earliest of those apocalypses, and how during which this knowing impacts the depiction of the fruits of ascent, the hero's success of a spot one of the angels, within the ascent apocalypses quite often. It additionally considers where of secrets and techniques of nature and primeval background in those works. ultimately, it bargains an interpretation of the pseudepigraphy of the apocalypses and their functionality.
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Additional info for Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses
The mountain of El at which the council meets in Ugaritic literature has two rivers at its base. 44 On the throne, according to both Daniel and Enoch, God sits, dressed in white. In Daniel God's hair is also described, and it too is white. Daniel 7 maintains the association of the heavenly council with judgment that appears in 1 Kings 22, Isaiah 6, and Psalm 82. It explicitly treats the divine council as a court: "The court sat in judgment and the books were opened" (v. 10). The scene described in Dan.
89 It seems probable that the author of the Aramaic Levi document, who took from 1 Enoch 12-16 traditions about Enoch's ascent for his account of the commissioning of the ancestor of the priestly line, also understood Enoch as priest,90 As we shall see, Enoch is considered priest as well as scribe in 2 Enoch also. 91 Like the biblical prophets Enoch participates in the proceedings of the heavenly council, although with a priestly overlay to this prophetic activity since heaven is a temple. The claims made for Enoch in the Book of the Watchers are powerful indeed.
Nehemiah was able to expel Tobiah from the temple because he was the Persian governor with the might of the Persian empire behind him, and his motives were surely in part political, since Tobiah's priestly friends opposed Nehemiah's reforms. But he justified his action by appealing to his interpretation of the Torah: "On that day they read from the book of Moses in the hearing of the people; and in it was found written that no Ammonite or Moabite should ever enter the assembly of God . " (Neh. 82 The implications of Nehemiah's action must be stressed: By all traditions of ancient religion the High Priest was the final authority on cult law, especially on purity law, and above all on purity law as it applied to his own temple.