Entomology

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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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It has been assumed that there was a much simpler informational macromolecule than RNA. It has been dubbed preRNA (or pre-RNA). This molecule may have been achiral and may have used bases other than AUGC. An example of an alternative backbone is PNA (peptide nucleic acid). 32 Pre-RNA World PNA/TNA /GNA   PNA is more stable than RNA and appears to be more readily synthesised in prebiotic conditions, especially where the synthesis of ribose and adding phosphate groups are problematic. Threose nucleic acid (TNA World)has also been proposed as a starting point, as has Glycol nucleic acid (GNA World).

64 Phylogenetic or cladistic systematics The Goal      The goal of phylogenetic or cladistic systematics is to define monophyletic taxa (clades). Clade (clades) defined as a single complete branch of the Tree of Life. A typical goal of systematics (and paleontology) is the construction of phylogonies. Cladistics is especially significant in paleontology, as it points out gaps in the fossil evidence. A phylogeny thus can be a description of the macroevolutionary history of a species or of more than one species.

Stable reference base with little variation, useful for standardization and inter-laboratory comparison. Neil Parkinson 62 Molecular systematics Advantages      Molecular systematics is an essentially cladistic approach. Molecular systematics often uses the molecular clock assumption that quantitative similarity of genotype is a sufficient measure of the recency of genetic divergence. One advantage of this molecular tool of systematics is that it is objective and quantitative. " 63 Phylogenetic systematics  Phylogenetic systematics uses homology as evidence of common ancestry and uses tree diagrams to portray relationships based upon recency of common ancestry.

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