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By Armand A. Maurer

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E. M. Huggard (London, 1951), p. 243. "... " Scotus, Rep. , Ill, quaestiuncula 4 (Paris, 1894), 22, p. 53. On this point see E. Gilson, Jean Duns Scot (Paris, 1952), p. 185, n. 2. Referring to his La Liberte chez Descartes et la Theologie (Paris, 1913), pp. 35 ff. " Ibid. , Ill, q. 1 (Venice, 1513), fol. 70ra. See the unpublished doctoral thesis of Timothy Fallon, The Notion of Truth in Herveus Natalis (University of Toronto, 1966), pp. 17-18. See also G. Vasquez-. "Quare licet nullus intellectus esset ab aeterno, si tamen esset futurus in aliquo tempore, et potuisset esse antea, et antea in infinitum, haec enunciatio, Antichristus erit, vel Homo est animal, diceretur aeternae veritatis, quia ex se ab aeterno non repugnat vere intelligi, vel in tempore, non determinato principio.

Comm. in primam partem Summae Theologiae, disp. 78, c. 2 (Venice, 1600), I, p. 482b. 4 5 6 1 8 ST. THOMAS AND ETERNAL TRUTHS 45 Propositions involving eternal truths are not true because they are known by God, but rather they are known by him because they are true — a thesis, incidentally, rejected by Descartes. Suarez concludes that the eternal truths have a certain independence of the divine intellect and will: propositions expressing them, he insists, have eternal truth not only as they exist in the divine intellect but also in themselves, prescinding from that intellect: habent perpetuam veritatem, non solum ut sunt in divino intellectu, sed etiam secundum se, ac praescindendo ab illo.

For there is a likeness of proportions between a genus, existentially considered, and one of its species on the one hand, and the same genus, existentially considered, and another species on the other hand. For example, there is a proportionality between esse animate and canis on the one hand, and esse animale and homo on the other hand. " In other words, dog and man are both animals, but unequally, each proportionate to its nature. This is the reason, incidentally, why any univocal comparison between the behavior of man and other animals is misleading.

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