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By B. Sonnleitner (Editor), T. Scheper (Editor)

The contributions to this distinct quantity have been chosen for you to convey current traits within the box of bioprocess tracking and estimation. demonstrated traditional equipment are seriously mentioned and non-conventional ones brought. papers specialize in extra fuzzy methods comparable to digital noses or complicated chemometric options. One contribution illustrates the excessive capability with the instance of cephalosporin construction. 3 contributions dare to "look" contained in the cells, one by way of the research of (microscopic) photographs, one through attempting to estimate the so-called physiological kingdom, and the 3rd via examining the metabolic community. This indicates how subtle (bio)chemical in addition to mathematical analytical instruments bring about larger realizing of dwelling structures and bioprocesses.

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Separation of compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) prior to FIA analysis has even been reported [475]. Kroner [222] reports on the good automation properties of FIA used for enzyme analysis. The stability of enzymes in the sensing systems often limits the use of bio- Fig. 19. Schematic design of a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. A selection valve (top) allows a selection between sample stream and standard(s). The selected specimen is pumped through an injection loop.

201]. 3 Calorimetric Sensors This type of biosensor exploits the fact that enzymatic reactions are exothermic (5–100 kJ mol –1 ). The biogenic heat can be detected by thermistors or temperature-sensitive semiconductor devices. A technical realization can be performed either by immobilizing enzymes on particles in a column around the heat-sensing device or by direct attachment of the immobilized enzyme to the temperature transducer. Applications to measure biotechnologically relevant substances have been: ATP, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, cellobiose, ethanol, galactose, lactose, sucrose, penicillin and others [30, 120, 142, 337].

E. by one or more operational and state variables (for instance feed rate and the concentrations or activities of cell mass and of effectors, if relevant) and inherent characteristic properties of the biosystem which are parameters. There are metabolites with a long lifetime and other (key) metabolites with very short 48 B. g. molecules representing the energy currency of cells such as ATP and other nucleotides. Rizzi et al. [348] and Theobald et al. [433] have shown that the energy charge response to a pulse challenge of a yeast culture is a matter of a few seconds only.

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